Catequesis del Papa Francisco sobre la espontaneidad y libertad de los niños

El Papa Francisco continuó con su serie de catequesis sobre la Carta de San Pablo a los Gálatas en la Audiencia General de este miércoles 20 de octubre en la que destacó la importancia de la libertad de la fe y la espontaneidad de los niños.

“Estos días estamos hablando sobre la libertad de la fe escuchando la Carta a los Gálatas. Se me ocurrió lo que Jesús decía sobre la espontaneidad y libertad de los niños, cuando este niño tuvo la libertad de acercarse y de moverse como si estuviera en su casa… Valentía para acercarse al Señor, de estar abiertos al Señor, de no tener miedo al Señor. Yo agradezco a este niño por la lección que nos ha dado a todos…”, señaló el Santo Padre.

A continuación, la catequesis pronunciada por el Papa Francisco:

Queridos hermanos y hermanas, ¡buenos días!

Estos días estamos hablando sobre la libertad de la fe escuchando la Carta a los Gálatas. Se me ocurrió lo que Jesús decía sobre la espontaneidad y libertad de los niños, cuando este niño tuvo la libertad de acercarse y de moverse como si estuviera en su casa. Y Jesús nos dice: también ustedes si no se hacen como niños no entrarán en el reino de los cielos. Valentía para acercarse al Señor, de estar abiertos al Señor, de no tener miedo al Señor. Yo agradezco a este niño por la lección que nos ha dado a todos, y que el Señor lo ayude en su limitación, en su crecimiento, porque ha dado este testimonio, le vino del corazón. Los niños no tienen un traductor automático del corazón a la vida, el corazón va hacia adelante, gracias.

El apóstol Pablo, con su Carta a los Gálatas, poco a poco nos introduce en la gran novedad de la fe. Lentamente va, va, cuál es la novedad de la fe. Es realmente una gran novedad, porque no renueva solo algún aspecto de la vida, sino que nos lleva dentro de esa “vida nueva” que hemos recibido con el Bautismo. Allí se ha derramado sobre nosotros el don más grande, el de ser hijos de Dios. Renacidos en Cristo, hemos pasado de una religiosidad hecha de preceptos, hemos pasado de una religiosidad hecha de preceptos a la fe viva, que tiene su centro en la comunión con Dios y con los hermanos. Es decir, en la caridad. Hemos pasado de la esclavitud del miedo y del pecado a la libertad de los hijos de Dios. Otra vez la palabra libertad.

Hoy trataremos de entender mejor cuál es para el apóstol el corazón de esta libertad. Cuál es el centro de esto. Pablo afirma que libertad está lejos de ser «un pretexto para la carne» (Gal 5,13): la libertad no es un vivir libertino, según la carne o según el instinto, los deseos individuales o los propios impulsos egoístas; al contrario, la libertad de Jesús nos conduce a estar – escribe el apóstol – «al servicio los unos de los otros» (ibid.). Pero ¿eso es esclavitud? Sí, la libertad en Cristo tiene alguna dimensión de esclavitud, alguna dimensión de esclavitud, que nos lleva al servicio, a vivir para los otros.

La verdadera libertad, en otras palabras, se expresa plenamente en la caridad. Una vez más nos encontramos delante de la paradoja del Evangelio: somos libres en el servir, no en hacer lo que nosotros queremos, somos libres en el servir, y allí viene la libertad; nos encontramos plenamente en la medida en la que nos donamos, nos encontramos plenamente en la medida en la que nos donamos, tenemos la valentía de donarnos; poseemos la vida si la perdemos (cfr Mc 8,35). Esto es Evangelio puro.

¿Pero cómo se explica esta paradoja? Porque es una paradoja. La respuesta del apóstol es tan sencilla como comprometedora: «mediante el amor» (Gal 5,13). No hay libertad sin amor, la libertad egoísta de hacer lo que quiero, no es libertad, porque vuelve sobre sí, no es fecunda. Menante el amor, es el amor de Cristo que nos ha liberado y aún es el amor que nos libera de la peor esclavitud, la del nuestro yo; por eso la libertad crece con el amor. Pero atención: no con el amor intimístico, con el amor de telenovela, no con la pasión que busca simplemente lo que nos apetece y nos gusta, no con eso, sino con el amor que vemos en Cristo, la caridad: este es el amor verdaderamente libre y liberador. Es el amor que brilla en el servicio gratuito, modelado sobre el de Jesús, que lava los pies a sus discípulos y dice: «Porque les he dado ejemplo, para que también ustedes hagan como yo he hecho con ustedes» (Jn 13,15). Servir los unos a los otros.

Para Pablo la libertad no es “hacer lo que me apetece y me gusta”. Este tipo de libertad, sin un fin y sin referencias, sería una libertad vacía, una libertad de circo, no va. Y de hecho deja el vacío dentro: cuántas veces, después de haber seguido solo el instinto, nos damos cuenta de quedar con un gran vacío dentro y haber usado mal el tesoro de nuestra libertad, la belleza de poder elegir el verdadero bien para nosotros y para los otros. La verdadera libertad siempre nos libera, en cambio cuando usamos esa libertad de lo que me gusta o no me gusta, permanecemos vacíos al final. Solo esta libertad es plena, concreta, y nos inserta en la vida real de cada día.

En otra carta, la primera a los Corintios, el apóstol responde a quien sostiene una idea equivocada de libertad. «Todo es lícito», todo es lícito, se puede hacer, no, es una idea equivocada. «Mas no todo es conveniente», responde Pablo. «Todo es lícito» – «Mas no todo edifica», responde el apóstol. Y añade: «Que nadie procure su propio interés, sino el de los demás» (1 Cor 10,23-24). Esta es la regla para desenmascarar cualquier libertad egoísta. A quien está tentado de reducir la libertad solo a los propios gustos, Pablo le pone delante de la exigencia del amor.

La libertad guiada por el amor es la única que hace libres a los otros y a nosotros mismos, que sabe escuchar sin imponer, que sabe querer sin forzar, que edifica y no destruye, que no explota a los demás para su propia conveniencia y les hace el bien sin buscar su propio beneficio. En resumen, si la libertad no está al servicio -esta es la prueba- si la libertad no está al servicio del bien corre el riesgo de ser estéril y no dar fruto, si la libertad no está al servicio del bien no da fruto.

Sin embargo, la libertad animada por el amor conduce hacia los pobres, reconociendo en sus rostros el de Cristo. Por eso el servicio de los unos hacia los otros permite a Pablo, escribiendo a los Gálatas, subrayar algo de ninguna manera secundario: hablando de la libertad que le dieron los otros apóstoles para evangelizar, subraya que le aconsejaron solo una cosa: acordarse de los pobres (cfr Gal 2,10). Curioso cuando después de esa lucha ideológica entre Pablo y los apóstoles se pusieron de acuerdo ¿qué dijeron los apóstoles? Ve hacia adelante y no te olvides de los pobres. Es decir, que tu libertad de predicador sea una libertad al servicio de los otros, no para ti mismo, de hacer lo que te apetece.

Sabemos sin embargo que una de las concepciones modernas más difundidas sobre la libertad es esta: “mi libertad termina donde empieza la tuya”. ¡Pero aquí falta la relación! Es una visión individualista. Sin embargo, quien ha recibido el don de la liberación obrada por Jesús no puede pensar que la libertad consiste en el estar lejos de los otros, sintiéndoles como molestias, no puede ver el ser humano encaramado en sí mismo, sino siempre incluido en una comunidad. La dimensión social es fundamental para los cristianos, y les consiente mirar al bien común y no al interés privado.

Sobre todo en este momento histórico, necesitamos redescubrir la dimensión comunitaria, no individualista, de la libertad: la pandemia nos ha enseñado que necesitamos los unos de los otros, pero no basta con saberlo, es necesario elegirlo cada día concretamente. Decidir sobre ese camino. Decimos y creemos que los otros no son un obstáculo a mi libertad, sino la posibilidad para realizarla plenamente. Porque nuestra libertad nace del amor de Dios y crece en la caridad.

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